The main goal of this subproject is to increase the understanding in inequalities in job accessibility. In particular, the sub-project will investigate the specific urban planning strategy of transit-oriented development (TOD) and its potential for delivering more equitable outcomes.
- Review and operationalization of concepts. This task consist of an ‘interpretative’ methodological phase, reviewing existing concepts, theories and related models and measurements of accessibility, transport related equity and social justice. Existing concepts and methods in related fields include the concept of neighbourhood and the methods to control for residential sorting effects (Bhat and Guo, 2007). However, these concepts have not been applied to social justice and social exclusion effects (Cervero and Day, 2008, Pucher, 1982).
- A social survey will be conducted in the three study areas (1500-2000 respondents in each country). The survey will collect individual and household characteristics, travel and housing costs, mode choice, preferences for different modes of travel and residential location, including access levels to jobs, transport quality and environmental quality. The survey will be stratified by socio-economic segment and residential location. Furthermore, the survey will include revealed preference/stated preference experiments examining the effect of TOD and public transport investments on mode choice, including access/egress travel, and residential location preference.
- Comparative analysis on mode choice, accessibility and social justice. We will examine systematic differences in mode choice and access to jobs and urban amenities for different population segments between São Paulo city, London and Randstad South by estimating the operational accessibility and social justice measures . This will involve analysis of the primary data collected for the different regions, using GIS analysis. We will analyse job accessibility based on the utility of the joint residential location and mode choice. We will compute the generalised travel cost based on the transport networks and estimated Value of Time and Willingness to Pay. Job accessibility will be measured at different clusters (i.e. income groups, mode, time-of-day) and their interaction.
- Discrete choice modelling of mode choice and location choice. We will estimate discrete choice models based on the joint revealed/stated preference (RP/SP) survey using the mixed logit model as recommended by Cherchi and Ortúzar (2006), for its versatility in random utility modelling (McFadden and Train, 1997). We will estimate the degree to which travel behaviour and residential location choices are influenced by improvements in public transport and TOD, and access/egress transport modes (e.g. walking, biking). With the developed model, a set of scenarios can be simulated to provide policy recommendations based on stakeholder inputs.